One of the main principles of modular programming, as well as object oriented programming, is encapsulation.
Encapsulation, briefly, is the concept that the implementer of a piece of software will distinguish between the code's public interface and its private implementation.
This is not only applicable to software libraries but wherever abstraction is used.
In Ada, the granularity of encapsulation is a bit different from most object-oriented languages, because privacy is generally specified at the package level.
Abstract data types¶
With this high-level granularity, it might not seem obvious how to hide the implementation details of a type. Here is how it can be done in Ada:
In the above example, we define a stack type in the public part (known as the visible part of the package spec in Ada), but the exact representation of that type is private.
Then, in the private part, we define the representation of that type. We can also declare other types that will be used as helpers for our main public type. This is useful since declaring helper types is common in Ada.
A few words about terminology:
Stacktype as viewed from the public part is called the partial view of the type. This is what clients have access to.
Stacktype as viewed from the private part or the body of the package is called the full view of the type. This is what implementers have access to.
From the point of view of the client (the with'ing unit), only the public (visible) part is important, and the private part could as well not exist. It makes it very easy to read linearly the part of the package that is important for you.
-- No need to read the private part to use the package package Stacks is type Stack is private; procedure Push (S : in out Stack; Val : Integer); procedure Pop (S : in out Stack; Val : out Integer); private ... end Stacks;
Here is how the
Stacks package would be used:
-- Example of use with Stacks; use Stacks; procedure Test_Stack is S : Stack; Res : Integer; begin Push (S, 5); Push (S, 7); Pop (S, Res); end Test_Stack;
Ada's limited type facility allows you to declare a type for which assignment and comparison operations are not automatically provided.
This is useful because, for example, for some data types the built-in assignment operation might be incorrect (for example when a deep copy is required).
Ada does allow you to overload the comparison operators
/= for limited
types (and to override the built-in declarations for non-limited types).
Ada also allows you to implement special semantics for assignment via
controlled types. However, in some cases
assignment is simply inappropriate; one example is the
File_Type from the
Ada.Text_IO package, which is declared as a limited type and thus
attempts to assign one file to another would be detected as illegal.
Child packages & privacy¶
We've seen previously (in the child packages section) that packages can have child packages. Privacy plays an important role in child packages. This section discusses some of the privacy rules that apply to child packages.
Although the private part of a package
P is meant to encapsulate
information, certain parts of a child package
P.C can have access to
this private part of
P. In those cases, information from the private
P can then be used as if it were declared in the public part of
its specification. To be more specific, the body of
P.C and the private
part of the specification of
P.C have access to the private part of
P. However, the public part of the specification of
P.C only has
access to the public part of
P's specification. The following table
Part of a child package
Access to the private part of its parent's specification
Specification: public part
Specification: private part
The rest of this section shows examples of how this access to private information actually works for child packages
Let's first look at an example where the body of a child package
has access to the private part of the specification of its parent
We've seen, in a previous source-code example, that the
declared in the private part of the
Encapsulate package cannot be used
Main procedure, since it's not visible there. This limitation
doesn't apply, however, for parts of the child packages of the
Encapsulate package. In fact, the body of its child package
Encapsulate.Child has access to the
Hello2 procedure and can call
it there, as you can see in the implementation of the
The same mechanism applies to types declared in the private part of a parent package. For instance, the body of a child package can access components of a record declared in the private part of its parent package. Let's look at an example:
In this example, we don't have access to the
Number component of the
Priv_Rec in the
Main procedure. You can see this in
the call to
Put_Line that has been commented-out in the implementation
Main. Trying to access the
Number component there would
trigger a compilation error. But we do have access to this component in the
body of the
My_Types.Ops package, since it's a child package of the
My_Types package. Therefore,
Ops's body has access to the
declaration of the
Priv_Rec type — which is in the private part of
its parent, the
My_Types package. For this reason, the same call to
Put_Line that would trigger a compilation error in the
procedure works fine in the
Display procedure of the
This kind of privacy rules for child packages allows for extending the functionality of a parent package and, at the same time, retain its encapsulation.
As we mentioned previously, in addition to the package body, the private part
of the specification of a child package
P.C also has access to the
private part of the specification of its parent
P. Let's look at an
example where we declare an object of private type
Priv_Rec in the
private part of the child package
My_Types.Child and initialize the
Number component of the
Priv_Rec record directly:
package My_Types.Child is private E : Priv_Rec := (Number => 99); end My_Types.Ops;
As expected, we wouldn't be able to initialize this component if we moved this declaration to the public (visible) part of the same child package:
package My_Types.Child is E : Priv_Rec := (Number => 99); end My_Types.Ops;
The declaration above triggers a compilation error, since type
is private. Because the public part of
My_Types.Child is also visible
outside the child package, Ada cannot allow accessing private information in
this part of the specification.