In the introduction to this course, we defined an "embedded system" as a computer that is part of a larger system, in which the capability to compute is not the larger system's primary function. These computers are said to be "embedded" in the larger system. That, in itself, sets this kind of programming apart from the more typical host-oriented programming. But the context also implies fewer resources are available, especially memory and electrical power, as well as processor power. Add to those limitations a frequent reliability requirement and you have a demanding context for development.

Using Ada can help you in this context, and for less cost than other languages, if you use it well. Many industrial organizations developing critical embedded software use Ada for that reason. Our goal in this course was to get you started in using it well.

To that end, we spent a lot of time talking about how to use Ada to do low level programming, such as how to specify the layout of types, how to map variables of those types to specific addresses, when and how to do unchecked programming (and how not to), and how to determine the validity of incoming data. Ada has a lot of support for this activity so there was much to explore.

Likewise, we examined development using Ada in combination with other languages, a not uncommon approach. Specifically, we saw how to interface with code and data written in other languages, and how (and why) to work with assembly language. Development in just one language is becoming less common over time so these were important aspects to know.

One of the more distinctive activities of embedded programming involves interacting with the outside world via embedded devices, such as A/D converters, timers, actuators, sensors, and so forth. (This can be one of the more entertaining activities as well.) We covered how to interact with these memory-mapped devices using representation specifications, data structures that simplified the functional code, and time-honored aspects of software engineering, including abstract data types.

Finally, we explored how to handle interrupts in Ada, another distinctive part of embedded systems programming. As we saw, Ada has extensive support for handling interrupts, using the same building blocks — protected objects — used in concurrent programming. These constructs provide a way to handle interrupts that is as portable as possible, in what is otherwise a very hardware-specific endeavor.

In the course, we mentioned a library of freely-available device drivers in Ada known as the Ada Driver Library (ADL). The ADL is a good resource for learning how Ada can be used to develop software for embedded systems using real-world devices and processors. Becoming familiar with it would be a good place to go next. Contributing to it would be even better! The ADL is available on GitHub for both non-proprietary and commercial use here: